What Wireless Broadband Technologies Are Available?
"Wireless" products, from remote control cars to cellular telephones, use a form of energy known as electromagnetic radiation to carry signals. The signals can be the pattern of vibrations commonly experienced as sound by the human ear. Or they can be the abrupt changes of frequency or intensity used to encode data signals. Whichever, electromagnetic radiation carries them through free space. We will get into this in detail in a moment. First, let's describe the four most common forms of wireless technologies: satellite, microwave, infrared, and radio communications.Satellite Wireless Communications
Normally, satellite communications are unavailable to small entities for network connectivity. The cost of leasing a transponder is prohibitive. However, one viable exception is the use of satellites to connect end-users to the Internet. A couple of companies currently offer high-speed Internet access to home and business customers through the installation of a small parabolic antenna ( satellite dish ). While this type of connectivity provides over 400Kbps download connectivity and 112Kbps upload.The costs are expensive and based on a daily level of data. Also affected by rain. Microwave Wireless Communications
The complete electromagnetic spectrum includes many types of wavelengths we've become very familiar with, at least in name. First among these is visible light. Two other types of wavelengths, just at either end of the visible spectrum, are infrared and ultraviolet light. These are the wavelengths that bring us "night vision" technology and tanning booths, respectively. Another portion of the electromagnetic spectrum we're becoming familiar with are frequencies called microwaves . These exist below infrared frequencies, but above normal radio frequencies.
Many of the data communications services offered by majortelecommunications companies are supported by microwave technology. While it is a viable alternative even in private communications, it has two drawbacks. First, microwave communication requires FCC licensing. Second, the cost of implementing microwave technology (tower/dish infrastructure) is higher than other options. On the other hand, microwave communication is extremely resistant to interference. But, because of its cost, it will not be an adequate alternative for many rural community networks. Infrared Wireless Communications
Computer technology that uses the infrared spectrum is becoming common. For example, wireless keyboards and receivers are commonly distributed with computers that serve as a base for home entertainment systems. A receiver is attached to the keyboard connector on the back of a computer case. An infrared transmitter operating at a proprietary frequency (each wireless keyboard manufacturer typically uses a different frequency) translates the keystroke coding into
an infrared signal and sends it to the receiver. Also, some computers now come with an infrared port which allows information from a hand-held or pocket computer to be transmitted to the desktop computer.
There are also network bridges/routers that use the infrared frequencies to transmit data. (For this manual, infrared communications includes laser technology used for data communications.) Like microwave technology, infrared provides high-speed connectivity. But infrared communication solutions are expensive to implement.
In most cases of community infrastructure, radio and microwave equipment will offer the most effective form of wireless communications. Because of licensing and cost issues, we have chosen to focus on radio frequency wireless. In the remainder of this document we'll discuss in plain English the core aspects of using radio frequencies to transmit computer data.Building an ISP Guide:
href="http://www.tech-ware-tips-startup-internet-business.com/buildinganisp1.html">Building an ISP Overview
href="http://www.tech-ware-tips-startup-internet-business.com/buildinganisp2.html">Broadband Wireless P2P & P2MP
href="http://www.tech-ware-tips-startup-internet-business.com/buildinganisp3.html">What is a Wireless Internet Service Provider?
href="http://www.tech-ware-tips-startup-internet-business.com/buildinganisp4.html">Types of available Broadband Wireless Technologies
href="http://www.tech-ware-tips-startup-internet-business.com/buildinganisp5.html">Radio waves and RF Frequencies
href="http://www.tech-ware-tips-startup-internet-business.com/buildinganisp6.html">Spread Spectrum and Frequency Hopping Technology
href="http://www.tech-ware-tips-startup-internet-business.com/buildinganisp7.html">Using Radio Signals as a Data Transmission Medium & Microwave RadioTransceivers
href="http://www.tech-ware-tips-startup-internet-business.com/buildinganisp8.html">Microwave Wireless Antennas - How they work & types
href="http://www.tech-ware-tips-startup-internet-business.com/buildinganisp9.html">Data Cables, Lightning Suppression, Tower Structures and Building ISP
href="http://www.tech-ware-tips-startup-internet-business.com/buildinganisp10.html">Throughput vs. Data Rates & Summary of How RF & Wireless Network Works
href="http://www.tech-ware-tips-startup-internet-business.com/buildinganisp11.html">Planning and Building a Turnkey Broadband Wireless Internet Service Provider Solution ISP
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